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乔军 中学高级教师。曾任铁岭市教师进修学院信息部主任、辽宁教育电视台铁岭记者站站长、铁岭电视台《教育时空》栏目制片人。系中国书画理论家协会会员、铁岭市书法家协会会员、铁岭市写作学会理事、铁岭市曹雪芹研究会常务理事。曾任《铁岭教育信息》责任编辑、《铁岭教育》执行副主编。任《辽北历史名人书画选》一书编委,书法作品曾获辽宁省师专系统书法比赛一等奖,著有《铁岭历史》、《可爱的铁岭》等著作,数十篇文章被公开发表。所撰《国旗寄语》被百度网当作范文采用。

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【转载】中考首字母填空练习  

2017-11-10 07:25:04|  分类: 学生专区 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

  下载LOFTER 我的照片书  |
本文转载自清风淡云《中考首字母填空练习》

首字母填空

 

首字母填空类短文题是近几年各省、市中考题经常采用的题型之一,这种题难度相对较大,考生失分现象严重。下面就讲一讲做这类题的方法与技巧。首字母填空类短文的阅读题属于能力测试的范畴,它考查的范围极广,可以是英语知识的方方面面,还可能涉及其它学科。它要求考生在充分理解短文的基础上将单词拼写出来,并且单词形式合理,符合语法规范,符合短文需要。常用的答题技巧如下:

  1. 通读短文知大意,看整体全面了解

  与阅读理解题和其它类型的完形填空一样,首先要通读短文,了解文章的大意。每篇短文段落之间必然承上启下、前呼后应。因此通读全文时要一气呵成,只要能了解短文的大意即可,细节不理解可以跳过。因此,在解题之前通读一遍短文,目的是对文章有个全面的了解,弄清其中心思想和大意。

  2. 复读短文抓信息,前后照应巧猜词

  在了解文章大意的前提之下再次通读短文,目的是对短文有更进一步的了解。在阅读时要特别注意一篇文章的开头(一般不设空)和结尾,它们能提供主要的信息,帮助了解全文所描述的事件或文章的中心思想。在阅读过程中,要注意上、下文的关系,这对于把握文章的整体意义大有用处。另外,要学会跳读,即对不理解的地方采用暂时回避的方式,待真正理解全文之后再找解决的方法。有些短文填空题,有时出现约 3%~5% 的生词是很正常的,这就要求学生根据构词知识或上、下文的意思加以猜测,来确定它的词义。

  3. 反复推敲多分析,慎重答题讲合理

  再次通读短文,对留空的句子进行全面的分析,看它在全文中所处的位置、作用和意义。这一遍阅读要求是精心阅读,要留心找出关键词、短语或句子,还要结合所给首字母的提示,进行填写,并注意单词的正确形式。

  4. 认真复查全文,把握整体和词形

  做完以后,再认真读一遍,检查所填写的单词是否与文章要求相符,文章是否通顺,前后是否呼应,有无句型结构及语法错误。从实际中看,很多学生能够充分利用词首字母和短文内容填写单词,但是,问题往往出现在单词的形式变化上。比如填 q ,要求填写 quickly ,而多数考生只知道填写 quick ,忽略了词性问题。因此,深思熟虑很重要。

 

宝山(嘉定)区初三英语第二学期学习能力诊断试卷

   Sleep is not the same every night. We experience some deep sleep and some active sleep(积极睡眠), which is when dreams happen. You might think sleepwalking(梦游) would happen in active sleep, but a person isn't physically active d 86       active sleep. Sleepwalking usually happens in the first few hours of sleep in the stage called slow-wave(慢波)or deep sleep. Not all sleepwalkers a 87      walk. Some simply sit up or stand in bed or act like they're awake when, in fact, they're asleep! Most, however, do get up and move around for a few seconds or for as long as half an hour.

    Sleepwalkers' e 88       are open, but they don't see the same way they do when they're awake and often think they're in different rooms of the house or different places altogether. Sleepwalkers tend(往往会) to go back to bed on their own and they won't r 89       it in the morning. Doctors say sleepwalking sometimes occurs when a person is sick, has a fever, is not getting e 90      sleep, or is stressed. If sleepwalking occurs frequently, every night or so, it's a good idea for your mom or dad to take you to see your doctor. But occasional(偶然的) sleepwalking generally isn't something to worry about, a 91       " it may look funny or even scary (惊恐的) for the people who see a sleepwalker in action.

It's important, of course, that the person is kept safe. Precautions(预防措施) should be t 92      so the person is less likely to fall down, run into something, or walk out the front door while sleepwalking.

    

86. during   87. actually  88. eyes  89. remember  90. enough  91. although  92. taken

 

 

长宁区初三英语第二学期学习能力诊断试卷

 

       Everyone needs sleep. In fact, all living things need sleep. Having a sound and good rest m_____86_____ us healthy. It is believed that our brain develops best during sleep. It helps all our systems work well w_____87_____ we are awake. Sleep allows our brain to reorganize all events during the day and will improve our memory development.

       For a student, eight to ten hours of sleep is required to give him or her e_____88_____ for the following day. A good sleep allows them to grow physically and mentally (心理上).

       With e_____89_____ sleep at night, students would be able to wake up early and be ready for school activities. They will be able to listen carefully in class and would have the ability to memorize the things that they learn and r_____90_____ them in the future.

       Eight hours of sleep makes students active t_____91_____ the whole day at school. They would be able to perform well in class, take down notes and finish their homework. When they have slept well, they can e_____92_____ understand their lessons. Good sleep prepares them well for the challenges (挑战) at school, from paperwork to sports. They will be ready to solve difficult tasks that require mental ability and skills.

 

86. makes  87. while/when  88. energy  89. enough  90. remember  91. through  92. easily

 

奉贤区初三英语第二学期学习能力诊断试卷

   Anger (生气) is a kind of feeling. Many things can make you angry. When your teacher gives you too much homework, when your team loses an important game, when your friend b __86__ your favourite thing and then breaks it, you may get really angry.

   Usually, your body will tell you when you are angry. For example, you breathe much f__87__, your face turns red and you may want to break something or hit someone, but sometimes, you hide your anger. For example, you may hide it in your h__88___ . The problem is that if you do this, you may get a headache or your stomach may hurt.

   In fact, it's not good to hide your anger, and it's normal for you to get angry sometimes. But anger must be let out in the right way, without hurting o_  89  _or yourself. Let me give you some advice.

   When you get angry, you can talk about it with other people. It's helpful to talk about your anger with other people, such as p___90____, teachers, good friends etc. When you talk about anger, those b___91___feelings can start to go away. On the other hand, when you start to feel angry, you can do some other things: count from 1 to 100; go for a bike ride; think about good things, etc.

Don't let your anger c  92    you. Remember that how you act when you are anger can make everything better or worse.

 

86. borrows  87. faster  88. heart  89. others  90. parents  91. bad  92. control

虹口区初三英语第二学期学习能力诊断试卷

 

     In the middle of the 1800s, France was considered the most important place in the world for art. One reason for that was the Academy, a government organization with some strict r__86_ ___ about art. It decided what could and could not be art. In order to be accepted by the Academy, an artist had to be very talented. Artists also had to paint exactly the way the Academy wanted them to. A brave group of painters challenged(挑战)these ideas and changed art f_87___

     Each year, the Academy had an exhibition of the art they had decided was the best. In 1864, a group of artists became a ___88____ because they didn’t get into the show. They felt that their paintings were not bad; the paintings were just different. After complaining to the government, these artists were given their own show.

     The Academy thought all art should look realistic(逼真).But these artists were more interested in trying to show movement and the bright colors of daylight. In their opinion, it was more real to show these than it was to paint a scene(场景)which was as s_89___as a photo. It was also more interesting to show all of the different colours when light hits an object like water.

By 1874, many different artists were painting in this new style, including Claude Monet. One of his paintings had the title,Impression: sunrise. A critic(评论家)h__90__these new artists. He used Monet’s title to make fun of these painters by calling themImpressionists(印象派)”,meaning that they didn’t make real paintings. The critics who liked these artists thought the word was just right. They began to use it happily. They thought it was more important to paint h_91__they saw things instead of just what they saw. Other artists around the world felt that they could have this freedom as well. Because of the impressionists, the art w_92___was never the same.

 

86. rules  87. forever  88. angry  89. still  90. hated  91. how  92. world

 

黄浦区初三英语第二学期学习能力诊断试卷

 

Once my mother told me a story. In Africa, when an antelope (羚羊) wakes up every morning, the first thing it thinks about is, “ I must be able to run faster than the fastest lion, or I will be k_________. ” At the same time, a lion wakes from his dream. The first thing the lion thinks about is, “I must be able to catch the s__________ antelope, or I will die of hunger.” So, almost at the same time, the antelope and the lion get up and start running toward the rising sun.

  This is life: full of chances and challenge (挑战). Whether you are an antelope or a lion, you must go a_________ when the sun rises. For students, it is just the same. If we do not study hard, sooner or later, we will fall b_________ the other students. At first, I did not know what the word “exam” meant. Later I knew an exam was a kind of competition. In competitions, there are always w_________ and losers. As I grew up, I got to know competition well. In one’s life, there must be competitions, so people can improve.

  Each time I saw children playing games and heard their laughter, I wished I were that age again. However, I remembered my parents’ words: “You must work very hard in order to have a good f__________.” So I picked up my pen and began to study hard again.

  I was still not sure what competition really meant. One day, I was taking part in an English-speaking competition. When I went to the stage, I saw other students looking at me kindly. I s__________ knew what competition was. It is not as cruel as my teacher and parents told me. In fact, competition is the opposite: it is kind and necessary.

  I learned a lot from realizing this fact. Now I understand more about the world. Competition is important for us all.

 

86. killed  87. slowest/smallest  88. ahead*  89. behind  90. winners  91. future  92. suddenly

 

金山区初三英语第二学期学习能力诊断试卷

 

I recently heard a story about a famous scientist. Because of his great achievement, he was thought to be more creative than the average person. When he was ask w  86  he was able to do this ,he gave the answer . It all came from an e  87  with his mother when he was about two years old. "I was trying to get a bottle of milk from the fridge when I lost the bottle and it fell, spilling the milk all over the floor a sea of milk! I was f  88 and I didn't know what to do ! " he said.

His mother heard the noise and got into the kitchen. “I was c  89  how to explain all this to you ,mom." he said . Instead of punishing(惩罚)him, she said "Robert ,what a great mess you have made! I have never seen such a huge sea of milk before! Well, since the milk has a  90  been spilled, would you like to play in the milk for a while ? We can it up after that.  "

Indeed, he did so. After a few minutes, his mother said, “You know, Robert, whenever you make a mess like this, finally you have to clean it up." He used a sponge(海绵)and together they cleaned up the spilled milk .

His mother then said ,"you know ,we failed in how to successfully carry a big milk bottle with two tiny hands just now .Let`s go out in the yard and fill the bottle with water to see if you can f  91   a new way to carry it . "Then the little boy learned that if he grasped the bottle at the top near the lip with both hands, he could carry it  w  92  dropping it.

What a wonderful lesson

 

86. why  87. experience  88. frightened  8g. explain  90. already  91. discover  92. without

静安区初三英语第二学期学习能力诊断试卷

 

       In the Renaissance Period (文艺复兴时期) (1500-1650), people became interested in higher education. They wanted to learn the a___________ languages such as Greek and Latin- languages that were used in the old times, and study mathematics, science, and so on. Many universities were set up during the 16th century.

University education was a privilege (特权) of the rich. Girls were not allowed to attend and poor people could not a____________ to go. A member of a wealthy family could attend university at the age of ten. He might study in different universities and since the teaching was all d__________ in Latin, it didn’t matter which country he studied in. It was not unusual for a young boy study one year in Italy and another in France without speaking either French or Italian.

It was p_________ in the 16th century to complete university without learning how to read or write. Since books were handwritten, there was not enough to give o___________ to each student. Often, only the teacher had a book. He would read to the students who would memorize what he said. Tests were oral, not written, In fact, many students finished school without ever writing a word.

For the not so wealthy, grammar schools were built in towns. They learned basic grammar and mathematics, and took part in Bible study, At home, girls learned washing, cooking, dancing, and the basics of taking care of a household. Poor children r___________ attended school.

The Renaissance was a time when learners did not simply accept what they were old. They did scientific experiments themselves to search for a__________ to the mysteries (神秘) of the space. Copernicus calculated that the Earth turned around the sun but was afraid to publish his works for  fear that the Church would punish (惩罚) him. Galileo later supported this. The watch, the telescope and some others were some inventions of this period.

 

86. ancient  87. afford 88. done  89. possible  90. one  91. rarely  92. answers

 

闵行区初三英语第二学期学习能力诊断试卷

 

     In the movie 2012, the volcano (火山) in Yellowstone National Park erupts (爆发) , smoke flies thousands of meters into the air, and car-sized pieces of stone and ash fly out.

     Now, some scientists say, it's very possible that the Yellowstone volcano will soon erupt in r 86     life for the fourth time in history, after about 640,000 years. According to the Daily Mail, the volcano in the Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, US, has been rising at a record rate since 2004. Its magma (岩浆) surface has gone u 87    3 inches (7.6 centimeters) per year over the last three years alone. This rise is one of the main s  88  that a volcano is about to erupt. However, scientists are not certain when the eruption will happen or what it will cause.

     Unlike what happens in the movie 2012, a volcano eruption would not destroy the whole world, b  89    it could cause huge damage to people living nearby. For example, the 2010 eruption of the Iceland Volcano caused more than 800 people to 1  90  their homes and many airports in European countries to shut down for a few days.

     There are more than 1,500 active volcanoes in the world. A volcano is c  91  active if it has erupted at least once during the last 10, 000 years. In ancient times, more than 80 percent of the earth's surface was volcanic. Volcanic eruptions formed the sea floor and some mountains over many years. Gas from volcanoes formed the earth's atmosphere (大气) .

     Volcanoes come from very hot liquid rock, that is magma, inside the earth. When magma comes upward and breaks through the earth's surface, it forms volcanoes.

     The rising magma heats water, which leads to explosions of steam. This pushes rocks and ash high into the sky. T  92   different things erupt from a volcano; hot liquid rock, volcanic ash and gases.

 

86. real  87. up  88. signs  89. but  90. lose  91. considered/called  92. Three

 

浦东新区初三英语第二学期学习能力诊断试卷

 

According to experts, the word Hutong originated from Mongolian language meaning "Well" (). In ancient times, people tended to gather and live around wells. So the original meaning of Hutong should be "a place where people gather and live." But Hutong first a___86___ in Beijing during the Yuan Dynasty. The old city was completely destroyed during the war. First, they had to find a center, and then built a r___87___ square city. At that time, there was a clear definition for “Avenue, Street and Hutong”. A 37-metre-wide road was called an avenue, an 18-metre-wide one was called a street, and a 9-metre-wide lane was called a Hutong. Most of today's Hutong were formed during the Ming and Qing Dynasties that followed. Nobody knows e___88__ how many Hutongs there are in nowadays Beijing. But if we connected all the Hutongs together, their total l___89___ would even be longer than the famous Great wall, which is about 4000 miles.
    Today you can find v___90___ Hutongs with different shapes, lengths or directions. The shortest one is only 40 centimeters wide. And some Hutongs have more than 20 turns.
    As we walk t___91___ the Hutongs, you may find most of them look almost the same with gray-colored walls and bricks. Actually inside those walls are the courtyard houses, where people live. In Chinese we call them "Siheyuan". "Si" literally means four, "he" means to surround, and "yuan" refers to the courtyard. So a rectangular wall enclosing four houses, one built on each side facing into the center, is called a Siheyuan. When they were first built, usually one Siheyuan was o___92___ by only one family, but nowadays, with the growth of the population, most Siheyuans are shared by 4 to 10 families.
 

 

86. appeared  87. regular  88. exactly  89. length  90. various  91. through/toward( s) /to  92. owned

 

普陀区初三英语第二学期学习能力诊断试卷

 

   Wendy Martin is an ordinary university student who used to love surfing the Internet and chatting (聊天) with friends online. She often spent much of her free time talking with her family and making new friends online. Then something a 86    happened. It completely changed Wendy's feelings about the Internet.

   One of Wendy's favourite things to do online was to visit the chat rooms on music websites. Everyone there loved chatting about recent concerts and what the famous s   87    were going to do next. It was here that Wendy first met Anne. The two women liked each other immediately. Soon they exchanged e-mail addresses and were communicating online every day.

   Wendy e   88   talking to her new friend. They both liked the same music, the same clothes and the same films, but they also had the same worries about studying and the future. Anne had e-mailed her a picture of herself—— she even looked s  89    to Wendy. So, when Anne asked Wendy for her address and phone number, Wendy thought her new friend was a person she could trust.

   It was only when Wendy got a letter from the bank that she realized something was wrong. Anne was not who she said she was. She was not a university student, she was not young and she was not even a woman. 'Anne' was really a 45-year-old man called Tim Histanon. He p  90    to like the same things as Wendy. He had used Wendy's personal information to spend all the money in her bank account.

   This situation is actually quite common, and affects (影响) thousands of people every year. Fortunately for Wendy, Tim Histanon was finally caught by the police, so Wendy got most of her money back. Many people, h  91   , have not been so lucky.

   Everyone can learn from the mistakes that Wendy made. N   92    give out personal information while chatting online, and always make sure your user name is different from your real name. Nobody wants to make the same mistake as Wendy.

 

86. awful  87. singers  88. enjoyed 89. similar  90. pretended  91. however  92. Never

 

青浦区初三英语第二学期学习能力诊断试卷

 

     India is a country rich in culture and tradition. And although India is changing, one thing remains the      s    (86)  : the cow is sacred (神圣的). And men and women cover their heads and faces with cow urine (牛粪)

     According to their tradition, the cow is not just a farm animal. These cows are like motherhood, and their milk feeds them. But it's not the milk these men and women are waiting for——it's the urine. As a precious     g       (87) from the cow, the urine is often placed in the house to protect their homeland. People think the urine can beautify their house and keep away b     (88) luck. Men even put cow urine into their hair.

     And this special form of worshipping (崇拜) has been around for centuries.

     Surprisingly, cow urine is even used by people as a kind of m    (89). Locals believe it can make sick people feel better. Believe it.

     Some believers show their worshipping by making an offering of hair.

     About 12,000 heads are shaved (剃头) every day. That means the city is always f    (90) of hairless believers. Often waiting for 10 hours or more, believers f      (91) enter the shaving area. On average the temple's 1,600 barbers shave over 15 heads an hour. The temple then sells piles of hair to local wigmakers (假发店). The money is used to help the area's poor and make sure the a     (92) hair temple of India keeps going. Believe it.

 

86. same  87. gift  88. bad  89. medicine  90. full  91. finally  92. amazing

 

松江区初三英语第二学期学习能力诊断试卷

 

    Have you ever noticed an advertisement which says "Learn a foreign language in six weeks, or your money back! From the first day your pronunciation will be excellent. Just send ..." and so on? Of course, it n   86     happens quite like that. The only language that is easy to learn is the mother tongue. And think how much practice that gets! Before the Second World War people usually learned a foreign language in order to read the literature of the country. Now speaking the foreign language is w   87    most people want.

Every year millions of people start learning one. How do they do it? Some people try at home, with books and tapes; some u   88    radio or television programs; others go to evening classes. If they use the language only two or three times a week, learning it will t   89  a long time, like language learning at school. A few people try to learn a language f   90   by studying for six or more hours a day. It is clearly easier to learn the language in the country where it is s   9l   . However, most people cannot afford this, and for many it is not necessary. They need the language in order to do their work b   92   . For example, scientists and doctors mainly need to be able to read books and reports in the foreign language. Whether the language is learned quickly or slowly, it is hard work. Machines and good books will help, but they cannot do the students' work.

 

86. never  87. what  88. use  89. take  90. fast  91. spoken  92. better

 

徐汇区初三英语第二学期学习能力诊断试卷

 

Today, the largest remaining area of hutongs(胡同) in Beijing is north of Forbidden City. This is where many Chinese and foreign tourists come for a “hutong tour”. We asked several of these tourists to tell us about their o__________.

 

 

 

 

(Vicky Wang, Hong Kong)

“It’s really s___87_____---we’re in the middle of one of the biggest cities in the world, but in these hutongs it feels as if we are in a village in the countryside. There are lots of trees everywhere, and all the buildings are only one or two storeys high. In a___88____, there aren’t many cars in the hutongs, so they are quite quiet--- very different from the streets in the centre of Hong Kong! It’s nice to walk around here and stop or have a drink in one of the little coffee shops or bars by the lakes.”

(Ted, Canada)

“When you visit the modern part of Beijing--- with the wide roads, tall buildings and colorful lights--- you can i_____89___ that you are almost anywhere in the world. It’s the old hutongs, temples and palaces that are really interesting and beautiful. It’s a s___90_____ that so little of the old city has been kept. I’ve taken lots of photos while I’ve been here. The next time I come back here, I don’t know how much of ‘old Beijing’ will be left.”

(Yu,Guangzhou)

“I don’t see what’s so interesting about these hutongs. The streets are too narrow--- I could h___91_____ drive my car down them. And most of the houses are old and dirty. China should have a better c___92____ cite that we can all proud of. Let’s get rid of these hutongs and change them into modern offices and flats.

 

86. opinions  87. strange/surprising  88. addition  89. imagine  90. shame  91. hardly  92. capital

 

杨浦区(崇明县)初三英语第二学期学习能力诊断试卷

 

Today some people call Amsterdam “The City of Bicycles” because it is a city which is flat and convenient for bicycles.

In the 1960s, a group of cycling fans had an idea. They believed that it would be better for everybody if only bicycles were a  86   in the city center. They hoped that this would help to save energy, reduce pollution and provide free transport. The group painted hundreds of bicycles white and placed them in public places around Amsterdam for people to use. Anyone was able to use them for s  87   journeys, whether he was a local or a foreigner. Wherever someone finished a journey, they would l  88   the bicycle there for someone else to use. The problem was that it didn’t work–thieves took all the bicycles within weeks!

However, more than forty years later, the “white bicycle” is b  89   in town–this time with a computer chip (芯片) to r  90   its every move! To take a bicycle, you have to put a special card inside. The new “white bicycle” is not white any more but is an unusual design with bright   colours. The bicycles are parked at special parking places and people who want to use them have to take them to a  91   place that has enough room.

There is already l  92   traffic in central Amsterdam, because both locals and tourists have been using the “white bicycles”. Thanks to the good ideas of lots of people, like the cycling fans in the 1960s, many people around the world have been enjoying city center streets without cars for many years.

 

86. allowed  87. short  88. leave  89. back  90. record  91. another/any  92. less/light

 

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